PE – Key Stage 5

Year 12

Course Information & Assessment Points

 Curriculum contentAssessed work
AP11. Classification of Motor Skills
• Muscular involvement (gross – fine);
• Environmental influence (open – closed);
• Continuity (discrete – serial – continuous);
• Pacing (externally paced – self paced);
• Difficulty (simple - complex);
• Organisation (low – high).

2. The Application of Classification to the Organisation & Determination of Practice
• Describe methods of manipulating skills (part and whole practice; progressive part and whole-part or whole) to facilitate learning and improve performance.
• Evaluate critically these methods & their effectiveness in the learning of movement skills.

3. Classification of Abilities Relating to Movement Skills
• Characteristics of ability (innate, underlying and enduring traits).
• Gross motor abilities with examples.
• Psychomotor abilities with examples.

4. Phases/Stages of Movement Skill Learning That Affect Participation & Performance in Physical Activity
• Identify characteristics of the phases of learning (Fitts & Posner)& Apply these phases of learning to practical activities
• Cognitive
• Associative
• Autonomous

5. Types of Guidance & Their Impact on Effective Performance & Participation in a Balanced, Active & Healthy Lifestyle
• Describe types of guidance used in different phases of learning to improve performance: (Visual – early phase; verbal – later phases; manual & mechanical – developing kinaesthetic awareness & knowledge of safety issues).
• Evaluate critically these different types of guidance.

6. Practice Methods & Their Impact on Effective & Efficient Performance of Movement Skills
• Describe methods of physical practice (massed; distributed; fixed; varied).
• Explain the role of mental practice & rehearsal vs. physical practice & rehearsal.
• Explain the appropriate use of practice methods to maximise effectiveness (for different ability levels & for different activities; classification of skills; schema theory).
• Evaluate critically different types of practice methods & their application to the performance of movement skills.

7. Models of Information Processing & Effectiveness in the Learning & Performance of Movement Skills
• Describe Welford’s Model (display, sensory information, sense organs, perceptual mechanism, effector mechanism, response and feedback);
• Describe Whiting’s Model (display, receptor systems, perceptual mechanism, translatory mechanisms, output, feedback)
• Apply these models to the learning & performance of physical activities.

8. Memory & it’s Role in Developing Movement Skills
• Describe the Multi-store model of the memory process; short-term sensory stores (STSS); short-term memory (STM) & long-term memory (LTM); interaction of memory with the perceptual process (selective attention).
• Describe strategies to improve both short-term memory storage (chunking) & long-term memory storage.
• Apply the memory process to the learning & performance of physical activities.

9. Reaction Time & Developing Effective Performance in Physical Activity
• Define reaction time, movement time and response time.
• Describe the impact of reaction time on performance.
• Explain factors affecting response time in practical activities .
• Demonstrate knowledge & understanding & the application of theories relating to reaction time (the psychological refractory period (PRP), single-channel hypothesis, choice reaction time (Hick’s Law) and the role of anticipation).

10. Motor and Executive Programmes & Their Impact on the Learning of Movement Skills
• Describe the nature of, and give examples of, programmes stored in the long-term memory.
• Explain the links to Open Loop Control & the autonomous phase of learning.

11. Types of Motor Control & Their Impact on Movement Skill Acquisition & Competence in Physical Activity
• Describe open loop control; closed loop control.
• Explain the role of open loop & closed loop control in the performance of motor skills.
• Evaluate critically different types of feedback to detect & correct errors.
12. Joints: Movements & Muscles
• Wrist: flexion and extension; wrist flexors and extensors.
• Radio-ulnar: pronation and supination; pronator teres and supinator muscle.
• Elbow: flexion and extension; biceps brachii and triceps brachii.
• Shoulder: abduction, adduction, flexion, extension, rotation, horizontal flexion, horizontal extension, circumduction; deltoid, latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major, subscapularis, infraspinatus, teres major and teres minor; trapezius; the role of the rotator cuff muscles, supraspinatus infraspinatus, teres minor and subscapularis.
• Spine (cartilaginous, gliding and pivot): flexion, extension, lateral flexion; rectus abdominus, external and internal oblique and the erector spinal group; sacrospinalis (the role of the transverse abdominus and multifidus in relation to core stability).
• Hip: abduction, adduction, flexion, extension, rotation illiopsoas, gluteus maximus, medius and minimus, adductor longus, brevis and magnus;
• knee: flexion and extension; biceps femoris, semi-membranosus , semi-tendinosus, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius and vastus medialis.
• Ankle: dorsi flexion, plantar flexion; tibialis anterior, soleus and gastrocnemius.





Informal tests at start of each lesson

Exam question at end of each lesson

Half-term test & resit tests
AP212. Schema Theory & Its Role in Developing Movement Skills & Strategies
• Explain relationships with the motor programme;
• Demonstrate knowledge & understanding of sources of information: recall schema (Knowledge of initial conditions; knowledge of response specification); recognition schema (knowledge of sensory consequences; knowledge of movement outcomes).
• Demonstrate knowledge & understanding of motor programmes (relevant sub-routines & possible schema identifies from the candidate’s physical activity experiences).

13. Motivation and Arousal and Their Impact on Young People’s Participation, Performance & Aspirations in Physical Activity
• Explain Drive Reduction Theory & its impact on a lifelong, balanced, active & healthy lifestyle.
• Demonstrate knowledge & understanding of arousal as a drive affecting levels of motivation.
• Explain motivation & arousal theories (Drive Theory, Inverted U Theory, Catastrophe Theory (Jones & Hardy)) & their application to the learning & performance of movement skills.
• Demonstrate knowledge & understanding of motivational strategies & their application (different ability levels, disaffected young people, encouraging participation in a balanced, active & healthy lifestyle).
• Evaluate critically motivation & arousal theories & the application of motivational strategies.

14. Theories Related to the Learning of Movement Skills and the Development of Positive Behaviours Associated with a Balanced, Active & Healthy Lifestyle
• The Associationalist/Connectionist Theory of Operant conditioning (Skinner).
• The cognitive theory related to the work of Gestaltists (Insight learning & ways of thinking to optimise learning).
• Social/observational learning theory; the importance of significant others in the adoption of a balanced, active & healthy lifestyle.
• Bandura’s model (demonstration, attention, retention, motor reproduction, matching performance), and the factors affecting modelling (nature & perceived importance of the model).

15. Reinforcement of Movement Skill Learning & Behaviours Associated with a Balanced, Active & Healthy Lifestyle
• Discuss positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement and punishment (with examples from candidate’s practical activities).
• Discuss Thorndike’s Laws; knowledge of methods of strengthening the stimulus-response (S-R) bond through repetition (Law of Exercise); satisfaction/annoyance/emotional intensity (Law of Effect); through physical and mental preparedness (Law of Readiness).
• Discuss appropriate use of reinforcement in skill learning & in promoting positive, healthy lifestyle behaviour.

16. Transfer of Learning to Develop Effectiveness in Physical Activity
• Discuss types of transfer that occur in practical performance: positive transfer; negative transfer; proactive transfer; retroactive transfer; bilateral transfer.
• Demonstrate knowledge & understanding of ways of optimising the effect of positive transfer.
• Demonstrate knowledge & understanding of ways of limiting the effect of negative transfer.
• Evaluate critically different types of transfer & their impact on the development of movement skills.
• Explain the effects of transfer of learning on schema development & the importance of variable practice.


17. Muscle Contractions and Muscle Fibre Types

• Explain concentric, eccentric and isometric contraction.
• Describe the structure and function of the different muscle fibre types (slow oxidative, fast oxidative glycolytic and fast glycolytic) in relation to different types of physical activity.
• Explain how an individual’s mix of muscle fibre type might influence their reasons for choosing to take part in a particular type of physical activity.

18. Warm up & Cool down



• Analyse the effect of a warm up and cool-down on skeletal muscle tissue in relation to the quality of performance of physical activity.

19. The Impact of Different Types of Physical Activity on the Muscular and Skeletal Systems

• Evaluate critically the impact of different types of physical activity (contact sports, high impact sports and activities involving repetitive actions) on the skeletal and muscular systems (osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, growth plate, joint stability, posture and alignment) with reference to lifelong involvement in an active lifestyle.
20. Basic Concepts of Biomechanics

• Define Newton’s Laws of Motion.
• Describe the types of motion produced (linear, angular or general).
• Describe the effect of size of force, direction of the force and the position of application of force on a body.
• Define centre of mass;
• Explain the effect of changes in the position of the centre of mass and the area of support when applied to practical techniques.
• Carry out a practical analysis of typical physical actions.

Discussion of two practical assessments

Evaluation and appreciation of performance:
• Strengths and weaknesses
• Action Plan
• Benefits of participation
• Pathways
Informal tests at start of each lesson

Exam question at end of each lesson

Half-term test & resits
AP31. Participation in Physical Activity
• Physical activity as an umbrella term (which might include physical & outdoor recreation, physical & outdoor education and/or sport).
• The meaning of the terms: Exercise; Healthy/Balanced lifestyles; Lifetime sport/Lifelong physical activity.
• The benefits of regular participation in physical activity.
• Factors contributing to increasingly sedentary lifestyles.
• Recommendations in terms of frequency, intensity & type of physical activity so as to develop, and sustain, a balanced, active & healthy lifestyle.
• Possible barriers to regular participation in physical activity by young people.

2. Physical Recreation & Outdoor Recreation
• Physical recreation (definitions; characteristics; benefits).
• Outdoor recreation as an aspect of physical recreation in the natural environment (characteristics; benefits).

3. Physical Education & Outdoor Education
• Physical Education (definitions; characteristics; benefits).
• Outdoor education as part of Physical Education in the natural (or semi-natural) environment (definitions; characteristics; benefits; adventure; risk (real vs. perceived) & safety; constraints on widespread regular participation by young people).

4. Sport
• Sport (definitions; characteristics; benefits).
• The terms: Physical prowess, physical endeavour, sportsmanship, gamesmanship, deviance.

5. The United Kingdom (UK)
• Demonstrate knowledge & understanding of surviving ethnic sports & games in the UK (e.g. Highland Games).
• Describe the characteristics of surviving ethnic sports & reasons for continued existence & popularity (including festival, local, traditional, isolation, social, tourism; annual; occasional; retention of ethnic identity).
• Explain the role of 19th Century public schools in promoting & organising sports & games.
• Explain the relatively recent move from the traditional amateur approach to a more professional approach (with reference to mass participation; sporting excellence; organisation & administration; government support) in sport.
6. The United States of America (USA)
• Describe characteristics of the USA (young, capitalist nation, relatively large population).
• Explain the nature of sport in the USA (win ethic; commercialism; vehicle for achieving ‘the American Dream’).
• Analyse the game of American Football (origins; nature of game including violence, commercialism).

7. Australia
• Describe characteristics of Australia (young nation, sparsely populated, colonial influence & immigration).
• Explain the nature of sport in Australia (social & cultural reasons for sport being a high status national pre-occupation).
• Analyse the game of Australian Rules Football (origins; factors that shaped its development, including commercialism & impact of media).

8. Response of the Cardiovascular system to Physical Activity

• Describe the link between the cardiac cycle (diastole and systole) and the conduction system of the heart.
• Describe the relationship between stroke volume, heart rate and cardiac output and resting values for each.
• Explain the changes that take place to stroke volume, heart rate and cardiac output during different intensities of physical activity.
• Explain the regulation of heart rate during physical activity (to include neural, hormonal and intrinsic factors).
• Describe the distribution of cardiac output at rest and during exercise (the vascular shunt mechanism).
• Explain the role of the vasomotor centre and the involvement of arterioles and pre-capillary sphincters;
• Explain how carbon dioxide and oxygen are carried within the vascular system; how effective transportation of carbon dioxide and oxygen within the vascular system aids participation in physical activity; how smoking affects the transportation of oxygen.
• Define blood pressure and identify resting values.
• Explain the changes that occur during physical activity and hypertension.
• Explain how venous return is maintained; the effects that a warm-up and cool-down period has on the cardiovascular system; how venous return affects the quality of performance.
• Evaluate critically the impact of different types of physical activity on the cardiovascular system (coronary heart disease (CHD); arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, angina, heart attack) with reference to lifelong involvement in an active lifestyle.

Discussion of two practical assessments

Evaluation and appreciation of performance:
• Strengths and weaknesses
• Action Plan
• Benefits of participation
• Pathways
Informal tests at start of each lesson

Exam question at end of each lesson

Half-term test & resits

Draft evaluation and appreciation of performance
AP48. Funding of Physical Activity
• Demonstrate knowledge & understanding of public funding; private funding; voluntary funding (including the National Lottery).

9. Bodies Inflencing & Promoting Participation in Physical Activity as Part of a Balanced, Active & Healthy Lifestyle; The Promotion of Health, Fitness & Well-Being and/or Sporting Excellence
• Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of UK Sport;
• Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the United Kingdom Sports Institute (UKSI) and devolved National Institutes of Sport;
• Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of home country organisations (Sport England, Sports Council Northern Ireland, Sportscotland, Sports Council for Wales);
• Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of current government and national governing body initiatives
• Evaluate critically initiatives that have an impact on young people’s aspirations & their regular participation in physical activity in the UK.

10. Excellence & Participation in the UK
• Explain sports development (the sports development pyramid; continuum from mass participation to sporting excellence);
• Explain opportunity, provision and esteem (with reference to both participation in physical activity and the achievement of sporting excellence);
• Evaluate critically social and cultural factors that affect participation in physical activity and the achievement of sporting excellence by young people, the elderly, people with disabilities, women and ethnic minority groups;
• Describe possible measures to increase participation in physical activity & achievement of sporting excellence.
11. Performance Enhancing Products
• Explain the reasons for the use of drugs in sport;
• Describe the consequences of the use of drugs in sport (with particular reference to health, wellbeing and role modelling for young people);
• Describe possible solutions to the problem of the use of drugs in sport;
• Explain the impact on performance (s) in sport of modern technological products (with reference to particular products & activities).

12. Violence in Sport
• Demonstrate knowledge & understanding of violence in sport (players and spectators);
• Describe possible causes & solutions.

13. Sport, Sponsorship & the Media
• Explain the roles of the media (informing; educating; entertaining; advertising);
• Evaluate critically the impact of the media on sport (with particular reference to its role in promoting balanced, active and healthy lifestyles and lifelong involvement in physical activity);
• Explain the relationship between sport, sponsorship and the media (‘golden triangle’).

14. The Olympic Games
• Demonstrate knowledge & understanding of the background (vision of de Coubertin); principles; aims and philosophy of the modern Olympic movement; summer and winter format; International Olympic Committee (IOC) and British Olympic Association (BOA);
• Explain the commercialisation of the Olympics: pre- and post-1984 (Los Angeles);
• Describe the opportunities and implications for sport and society in the UK arising from 2012; (impact of being a host nation on sport and society; benefits and drawbacks including potential for increasing participation and promoting healthy lifestyles particularly among young people);
• Explain how the Olympic Games is a vehicle for nation building – E.g. China; the ‘Shop Window’ effect; government control & funding of sport; sport as a political tool.

15. Response of the Respiratory System to Physical Activity

• Describe the mechanics of breathing at rest and the respiratory muscles involved (including the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles).
• Explain the changes in the mechanics of breathing during physical activity including reference to additional muscles involved (sternocleidomastoid and pectoralis minor) and the active nature of expiration (internal intercostals and abdominal muscles).
• Explain how changes in the mechanics of breathing during physical activity are regulated by the respiratory centre (both neural and chemical control) to take into account the demands of different intensities of physical activity.
• Describe the process of gaseous exchange that takes place between the alveoli and the blood and between the blood and the tissue cells. (An awareness of partial pressure is required but candidates will not be expected to provide specific respiratory pressures.).
• Explain the changes in gaseous exchange that take place between the alveoli and the blood and between the blood and the tissue cells (increased diffusion gradient and accelerated dissociation of oxy-haemoglobin) as a direct result of participation in physical activity.
• Explain the effect of altitude on the respiratory system and how it influences the performance of different intensities of physical activity.
• Evaluate critically the impact of different types of physical activity on the respiratory system with reference to lifelong involvement in an active lifestyle (to include an awareness of asthma and smoking).
Exam question at end of each lesson

Half-term test & resits

Second draft evaluation and appreciation of performance

PPE: Theory and practical

Moderation day
AP5Revision

Year 13

Course Information & Assessment Points

 Curriculum contentAssessed work
AP11. Personality and its importance in effective performance and to following a balanced, active and healthy lifestyle
• demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the theories of personality: trait perspectives (the characteristics of extroversion/introversion, neuroticism/stability, Type A/Type B); social learning perspectives; interactionist approaches;
• explain the effects of personality profiling on the adoption of balanced, active and healthy lifestyles;
• evaluate critically personality profiling in sport

2. Attitudes and their influence on performance and lifestyles
• describe and explain the nature of attitudes, inconsistencies and prejudice in sporting situations;
• explain the origins of attitudes, and their influence on performance and lifestyles (including the effects of socialisation);
• describe the components of attitudes (cognitive, affective, behavioural);
• evaluate critically attitudes (and behaviour) in sport and lifestyle choice;
• describe methods of changing attitudes from negative to positive to promote participation in physical activity and a balanced, active and healthy lifestyle;
• demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the concept of cognitive dissonance to change attitudes.

3. Motivation and it’s influence on performance and lifestyles
• Atkinson and McClelland’s theory of achievement motivation (need to achieve and need to avoid failure);
• sport-specific achievement motivation (eg competitiveness).

4. Attribution theory and the impact of attribution on performance and sustaining a balanced, active and healthy lifestyle
• discuss reasons for success and failure in physical activity;
• explain Weiner's model (locus of causality and stability dimensions);
• justify the use of attributional retraining;
• demonstrate knowledge and understanding of strategies for the promotion of mastery-orientation and the avoidance of learned helplessness; to raise self-esteem and to develop positive behaviours towards lifetime involvement in physical activity;
• Evaluate critically the effects of attribution theory on performance and on sustaining a balanced, active and healthy lifestyle.

5. Aggression and it’s impact upon performance and behaviour
• describe the nature of aggression and assertion;
• define channelled aggression;
• explain the causes of aggressive behaviour;
• evaluate critically theories of aggression (instinct theories; frustration-aggression hypothesis; aggressive-cue hypothesis (Berkowitz); social learning theories);
• describe methods of eliminating aggressive tendencies of performers and explain the effects of these methods on the adoption of active and healthy lifestyles.

6. Groups and teams – their impact upon performance and the pursuit of balanced, active and healthy lifestyles
• describe the nature of a group/team (mutual awareness, interaction, common goal);
• demonstrate knowledge and understanding of Steiner’s model of group performance (awareness of problems associated with productivity of a group/team);
• demonstrate knowledge and understanding of motivational factors (social loafing); coordination/co-operation factors (Ringlemann effect) and explain the negative influences on behaviour that cause dysfunctional behaviour and avoidance of an active and healthy lifestyle;
• explain the factors affecting the formation and development of a cohesive group/team;
• explain the factors affecting participation in a group/team;
• explain group and team effects on behaviour (related to balanced, active and healthy lifestyles).
7. Leadership and the role of a leader in physical activities
• demonstrate knowledge and understanding of effective leadership and explain its effects on lifestyle behaviour;
• describe the characteristics of leaders (autocratic/task-oriented; democratic/social-oriented; laissez-faire);
• demonstrate knowledge and understanding of emergent and prescribed leaders;
• evaluate critically leadership theories (trait; social learning; interactionist theories);
• demonstrate knowledge and understanding of Chelladurai’s multi-dimensional model of leadership and explain the effect of leadership expectations on performance and the adoption of a balanced, active and healthy lifestyle.

8. Energy Concepts & Systems

Concepts

• Define energy (to include chemical, kinetic and potential), work and power and identify the units they are expressed in.



Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

• Explain the role of ATP; the breakdown and resynthesis of ATP; the principle of coupled reactions and exothermic and endothermic reactions.



ATP re-synthesis

• Explain the three energy systems: adenosine triphosphate phosphocreatine (ATP/PC) (alactic); the lactic acid system; the aerobic system; (to include the type of reaction (aerobic or anaerobic), the chemical or food fuel used, the specific site of the reaction, the controlling enzyme, energy yield, specific stages within a system, and the by-products produced).
• explain the contribution made by each energy system in relation to the duration and intensity of exercise.
Exam question at end of each lesson

Half-term test & resits
AP28. Social facilitation and inhibition – the effects of an audience and other participants on performance and lifestyle behaviours
• demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the positive (facilitation) and negative (inhibition) effects (audience and co-actors) on performance, participation and lifestyle;
• demonstrate knowledge and understanding of links with levels of arousal, and the heightening of the dominant response (Zajonc);
• explain causes and effects of evaluation apprehension;
• demonstrate knowledge and understanding of strategies to combat the effects of social inhibition in practical activities (the use of selective attention and mental rehearsal) and in following a balanced, active and healthy lifestyle.

9. Goal setting – impact on performance and the development and sustaining of a balanced, active and healthy lifestyle
• demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the importance and relevance of goal setting to sport (including participation, persistence and performance);
• explain factors affecting the setting of goals (‘SMARTER’ principle);
• evaluate critically the use of short/intermediate/long-term goals and process/performance/product goals to improve performance and participation in physical activity.

10. Self-confidence and its impact on performance, participation in physical activity and in raising self-esteem
• demonstrate knowledge and understanding of sports confidence (Vealey), and the concepts of trait sports confidence, competitiveness orientation, and state sports confidence;
• demonstrate knowledge and understanding of self-efficacy (Bandura) explaining the influence of performance accomplishments, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, and emotional arousal;
• explain the effects self-efficacy on performance and in sustaining a balanced, active and healthy lifestyle.

11. Attentional control and its impact on effective performance
• demonstrate knowledge and understanding of cue utilisation (Easterbrook) and explain the links with arousal;
• demonstrate knowledge and understanding of attentional styles (broad/narrow, internal/external - Nideffer).

12. Emotional control and its impact upon performance and in sustaining a balanced, active and healthy lifestyle
• Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of activation and arousal and explain their relationship with personality, ability level and complexity of task;
• Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of peak flow experience and the zone of optimum functioning theory (Hanin);
• Describe the nature, and explain influences of, anxiety; state/trait distinction;
• Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of anxiety management techniques: cognitive techniques (mental rehearsal/imagery, positive self talk, thought stopping, rational/positive thinking) and somatic techniques (progressive muscular relaxation, biofeedback relaxation);
• Evaluate critically anxiety management techniques in improving performance, participation in physical activity and in sustaining a balanced, active and healthy lifestyle.

13. Energy Continuum, The Recovery Process & Aerobic Capacity

Energy Continuum

The Recovery Process



• identify the predominant energy system used related to the type of exercise (duration and intensity);
• explain the inter-changing between thresholds during an activity (eg the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA)); the effect of level of fitness, availability of oxygen and food fuels, and enzyme control on energy system used.



• Explain how the body returns to its pre-exercise state: the oxygen debt/excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); the alactacid and lactacid debt components (to include the processes that occur and the duration of each component); replenishment of myoglobin stores and fuel stores and the removal of carbon dioxide.
• Explain the implications of the recovery process for planning physical activity sessions (eg training intensities, work/relief ratios).

Aerobic capacity

• define aerobic capacity and explain how a performer’s VO2 max is affected by individual physiological make-up, training, age and sex.
• describe and apply methods of evaluating aerobic capacity (eg multi-stage fitness test, PWC170 test); candidates should assess their own VO2 max, comparing their result with the aerobic demands of their chosen activities;
• describe different types of training used to develop aerobic capacity (continuous running; repetition running; fartlek and interval training).
• explain the use of target heart rates as an intensity guide.
• describe the energy system and the food/chemical fuels used during aerobic work.
• explain the physiological adaptations that take place after prolonged periods of aerobic physical activity (eg an increase in stroke volume).
• plan a programme of aerobic training based on their own assessment of their aerobic capacity and the requirements of their activity.
Exam question at end of each lesson

Half-term test & resits

Practical performance

Draft evaluation and appreciation of performance

AP38. Case Studies
For each case study activity candidates should be able to, with reference to the content specific to each activity:
• analyse the activity as popular recreation;
• assess the influence of 19th-century public schools on the development of the activity;
• demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the activity as rational recreation;

9. Bathing and swimming
• Recreation; survival; health; initial development of competitive swimming.
• Swimming in the public schools: values and status.
• Bathing in urban industrial towns (Wash and Bath House Acts; hygiene and prevailing social conditions); the organisation of amateur swimming and formation of the Amateur Swimming Association (ASA).

10. Athletics
• Types and nature of activities associated with community events, rural sports, festivals, commercial fairs and wakes; view of the church; pedestrianism (its nature, development and status); the emergence of athletics.
• Athletics in public schools: hare and hounds; steeplechase; athletic sports days; values and status; influence of Exeter College, Oxford.
• The emergence of amateur athletics and opportunities for working class participation; amateurism, professionalism and the exclusion clause.
• Factors that have helped develop athletics in the UK and the impact of these factors on contemporary participation and performance.

11. Football
• Mob games.
• Football and rugby in public schools: values and status.
• Amateurism and professionalism; broken time payments; the split between association football and rugby football; spectatorism vs. participation and the importance of the game in urban communities.

12. Cricket
• Significance of class on participation.
• Cricket in public schools: values, status and organisation.
• William Clarke XI; amateurism and professionalism.

13. Tennis
• Real tennis as an exclusive, elitist pre-industrial activity.
• Tennis and other striking games in public schools: (fives, racquets, squash) their status and organisation.
• Lawn tennis as a middle class invention; tennis as a social occasion and as a vehicle for the emancipation of women and their participation in sport.

Strength & Flexibility
Strength

• Define types of strength (to include strength endurance, maximum strength, explosive/elastic strength, static and dynamic strength).
• Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of factors that affect strength (fibre type and cross sectional area of the muscle).
• Describe and apply methods of evaluating each type of strength (eg grip strength dynamometer).
• Describe and evaluate different types of training used to develop strength (the repetition, sets and resistance guidelines used to improve each type of strength); use of multi-gym, weights, plyometrics and circuit/interval training (with reference to work intensity; work duration; relief interval; number of work/relief intervals).
• Describe the energy system and the food/chemical fuels used during each type of strength training.
• Explain the physiological adaptations that take place after prolonged periods of physical activity (to include neural and physiological changes to skeletal muscle).
• Plan a programme of strength training based on their own assessment of their strength and the strength requirements of their activity.



Flexibility

• Define flexibility (to include static and dynamic flexibility).
• Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of factors that affect flexibility (type of joint; length of surrounding connective tissue).
• Describe and apply methods of evaluating flexibility (eg sit and reach test; goniometer (angle measure)).
• Describe different types of training used to develop flexibility (including static (active and passive), dynamic, ballistic and proproceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)).
• Explain the physiological adaptations that take place after prolonged periods of physical activity (to include physiological changes to skeletal muscle and connective tissue).
• Plan a programme of flexibility training based on their own assessment of their flexibility and the flexibility requirements of their activity.
Exam question at end of each lesson

Half-term test & resits
AP41. Popular Recreation in Pre-Industrial Britain & it’s Impact on Contemporary Participation & Performance
• describe characteristics (simple/natural; occasional; local; wagering; violence/cruelty; simple unwritten rules; courtly/popular; rural; occupational);
• explain social and cultural factors that influenced the nature and development of popular recreations;
• explain how popular recreation affected the physical competence and health of participants;
• describe the varying opportunities for participation;
• explain the impact of popular recreation on contemporary participation and performance;

2. Rational Recreation in Pre-Industrial Britain & it’s Impact on Contemporary Participation & Performance
• describe the characteristics of rational recreation (including respectability, regularity, regionalisation, codification, more controlled wagering) and an understanding of how these differed from the characteristics of popular recreation;
• explain how social and cultural factors influenced the nature and development of rationalised sports and pastimes with reference to:
• the industrial revolution and associated urban and agrarian revolutions;
• the emergence of an urban middle class;
• changes in work conditions that improved health and affected participation;
• increases in free time (Saturday half day and early closing movement) for industrial working class (a move towards more balanced, active and healthy lifestyles);
• the transport revolution and the impact of the railways (increased opportunity for participation and the development and spread of sport);
• changing views of the Church towards sport and recreation;
• amateurism and professionalism;
• the place and status of women in Victorian Britain; increased participation by middle-class women by the end of the 19th century;
• explain how rational recreation had an impact on the physical competence and health of participants;
• describe the varying opportunities for participation;
• explain the impact of rational recreation on contemporary participation and performance and compare participation then and now;


3. Nineteenth-century public schools and their impact on the development of physical activities and young people both then and now
• describe the characteristics (fee-paying; endowed; boys; boarding; gentry; non-local; controlled by trustees; spartan);
• explain the impact of 19th-century public schools on the development of case study activities with particular reference to participation and healthy lifestyles both then and now;

4. The developmental stages of athleticism in 19th-century public schools
• demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the three developmental stages of athleticism as a reflection of societal change and the civilising process;
• explain the evolving nature, status, organisation, technical development, social relationships and values of the schools and their sports and games through the stages;
• evaluate the influence of the three developmental stages of athleticism on the development of physical activities and young people both then and now;

5. Stage one (boy culture; bullying; brutality)
• explain the emergence of a sporting culture in individual schools as a result of activities brought in to schools by boys (melting pot) and the natural facilities available.

6. Stage two (Dr Arnold; social control)
• Explain the impact of Dr Thomas Arnold of Rugby School (1795–1842) as a reforming Headmaster (his aims, strategies, influence and impact);
• demonstrate knowledge and understanding of Muscular Christianity (definition and values).

7. Stage three (the ‘cult’ of athleticism)
• athleticism (definition and values);
• ‘melting pot’ influence of universities;
• the standardisation of rules;
• the role and impact of games-playing Oxbridge graduates returning to their schools;
• the influence of ex-public school boys on the spread of team games/rational recreations;
• reasons for the slower development of athleticism and regular participation in sports and games in girls’ public schools (as compared with boys’ public schools).
14. The 1902 Model Course
• describe objectives; content and methodology;
• explain reasons for implementation of the 1902 Model Course and the role of Colonel Malcolm Fox;

15. The 1933 Syllabus
• describe objectives; content; methodology; reputation;
• explain reasons for the replacement of the 1933 Syllabus.

16. The 1950s - Moving and Growing and Planning the Programme
• describe objectives; content and methodology (young people as independent decision-makers who should be encouraged to solve problems);
• explain the influence of World War II on the use of apparatus and the building of gymnasia, leading to increased involvement in, and effectiveness of, physical activity for young people.

17. 1970s and 1980s
• explain the impact of industrial action on opportunity and provision for young people to participate in physical activity in state schools as part of a lifelong involvement in a balanced, active and healthy lifestyle; impact on extra curricular activities;
• describe the aims of the National Curriculum for Physical Education;

18. Body Composition, Periodisation & Ergogenic Aids
Body composition

• Explain what is meant by body composition.
• Describe different methods of assessing body composition.
• Calculate the body mass index (BMI) of an individual.
• Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of basal metabolic rate (BMR) and the different energy requirements of different physical activities (use of metabolic equivalent/MET values).
• Estimate their daily calorific requirements (dietary/nutritional intake) based on their BMR and average additional energy consumption;
• Evaluate critically their own diet and calorie consumption.
• Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the health implications of being overweight or obese and how this affects involvement in physical activity.




Periodisation

• Define periodisation; macro, meso and micro cycles.
• Plan a personal health and fitness programme that will promote sustained involvement in a balanced, active and healthy lifestyle; the plan should include the principles of training.



Ergogenic aids

• Explain the positive and negative effects of each type of aid together with the type of performer who would benefit from its use;
• Identify the legal status of each type of aid;
• Evaluate critically the use of ergogenic aids in order to be able to make informed decisions about their use.
• Aids considered should include:
• Use of dietary manipulation, pre-/post-competition meals/supplements and food/fluid intake during exercise;
• Use of creatine supplements and human growth hormone;
• Gene doping;
• Blood doping and recombinant erythropoietin (Rh EPO);
• Use of cooling aids to reduce core temperature and aid recovery;
• Use of training aids to increase resistance, eg pulleys; parachutes;
• Other aids can be considered and candidates should already have prior knowledge of the effects of alcohol, caffeine and anabolic steroids.
Exam question at end of each lesson

Half-term test & resits

Second draft evaluation and appreciation of performance

PPE
AP5Revision
Course Information
Department
PE

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